Wolfberry (?) is grown in the Far East and is grown from shrubs with long vines. The shrubs are covered with small trumpet-shaped flowers, which turn into small, bright red berries. The berries are usually fresh and sometimes used when dried. TCM Information: Species: Lycium barbarum. Pinyin: Gou Qi Zi. Common Name: Chinese Wolfberry. Quality: Sweet, Neutral. Meridians: Liver, Lung, Kidney. Actions: Tonifies kidney and lung yin, tonifies liver blood, tonifies jing, improves vision. Goji or wolfberry is the fruit of Lycium barbarum (Chinese: ; pinyin: Ningxia gouqi) and Lycium chinense (Chinese: ; pinyin: gouqi), two very closely related species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (which also includes the potato, tomato, eggplant, deadly nightshade, chili pepper, and tobacco). It is native to Wolfberry leaves form on the shoot either in an alternating arrangement or in bundles of up to three, each having a shape that is either lanceolate (shaped like a spearhead longer than it is wide) or ovate (egg-like). Leaf dimensions are 7-cm wide by 3.5-cm broad with blunted or round tips. The flowers grow in groups of one to three in the leaf axils. The calyx (eventually ruptured by the growing berry) consists of bell-shaped or tubular sepals forming short, triangular lobes. The corolla are lavender or light purple, 9Ц14 mm wide with five or six lobes shorter than the tube. The stamens a
e structured with filaments longer than the anthers. The anthers are longitudinally dehiscent. In the northern hemisphere, flowering occurs from June through September and berry maturation from August to October, depending on the latitude, altitude, and climate. Fruit These species produce a bright orange-red, ellipsoid berry 1Ц2-cm deep. The number of seeds in each berry varies widely based on cultivar and fruit size, containing anywhere between 10Ц60 tiny yellow seeds that are compressed with a curved embryo. The berries ripen from July to October in the northern hemisphere. Etymology Lycium, the genus name, is derived from the ancient southern Anatolian region of Lycia (?). The fruit is known in pharmacological references as Lycii fructus, which is Latin for "Lycium fruit". "Wolfberry" is the most commonly used English common name. The origin of this name is unknown, perhaps resulting from confusion over the genus name Lycium, which resembles "lycos", the Greek word for wolf. In the English-speaking world, the name "goji berry" has been used since the early 21st century. The word "goji" is an approximation of the pronunciation of gouqi (), the name for L. chinense in several Chinese dialects, including Hokkien and Shanghainese. This name possibly derives from the same roots as the Persian language term gojeh () which means "plum/berry".