Crataegus

Crataegus ( /krti?s/), commonly called hawthorn, or thornapple, or hawberry, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. However the name is now also applied to the entire genus, and also to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5Ц15 metres (16Ц49 ft) tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1Ц3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in) in one case). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrate margins and are somewhat variable in shape. The fruit, sometimes known as a "haw", is berry-like, but structurally a pome containing from 1 to 5 pyrenes that resemble the "stones" of plums, peaches, etc. which are drupaceous fruit in the same subfamily.The fruits of the species Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese Hawthorn) are tart, bright red, and resemble small crabapple fruits. T

ey are used to make many kinds of Chinese snacks, including haw flakes and tanghulu (?). The fruits, which are called shanzha () in Chinese, are also used to produce jams, jellies, juices, alcoholic beverages, and other drinks . In South Korea, a liquor called sansachun (?) is made from the fruits. The fruits of Crataegus mexicana are known in Mexico as tejocotes and are eaten raw, cooked, or in jam during the winter months. They are stuffed in the pinatas broken during the traditional pre-Christmas celebration known as Las Posadas. They are also cooked with other fruits to prepare a Christmas punch. The mixture of tejocote paste, sugar, and chili powder produces a popular Mexican candy called rielitos, which is manufactured by several brands. In the southern United States fruits of three native species are collectively known as mayhaws and are made into jellies which are considered a great delicacy. In Iran, the fruits of Crataegus (including Crataegus azarolus var. aronia, as well as other species) are known as zalzalak and are eaten raw as a snack, or used as in a jam known by the same name. The leaves are edible and, if picked in spring when still young, they are tender enough to be used in salads. [edit]Canada On Manitoulin Island in Canada, some red-fruited species are called hawberries. They are common there thanks to the island's alkaline soil. During the pioneer days, white settlers ate these fruits during the winter as the only remaining food supply. People born on the island are now called "haweaters".